Due to the lack of applicable innovation in textile processing area more than 70% of industry runs on the conventional process which is ultimately reducing natural resources day by day and creating cancer and persistent effect in environment. Greenpeace along with reputed apparel brands has started to work on ZDHC project, Zero discharge of Hazardous chemical in environmental must be discharge. But still we do not found any project which run for the saving of natural resources i.e. water and energy and ultimately to minimize effluent load.
Let’s take an overview about top textile processing country i.e. China, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Brazil and Turkey. What’s are the countries issues.
One of the country’s greatest environmental challenges is water pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that polluted water causes 75 percent of diseases in China.
According to World Economic Forum on East Asia, Security and Sustainability China uses three times more energy than the global average, four times more than the USA and eight times more than Japan. Pollution is endemic; four hundred thousand Chinese die prematurely every year through air pollution and in addition, all China is chronically short of water.
Environmental Impacts of Textile Processing Together with the chemicals industry; textile manufacturing is one of the largest polluting sectors in China. In general, textile processing has a very high consumption of water and energy, and a large amount of wastewater discharge.
Further investigations by Greenpeace revealed that shoppers around the world are buying contaminated clothing and unwittingly spreading water pollution when they wash their new garments. Of the 78 articles analysed for Greenpeace’s Dirty Laundry 2 report, 52 tested positive for the presence of Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) above the detection limit of 1 milligram NPE per kilogram of material (mg/kg). Clothing from all but one of the fifteen brands tested (GAP, two samples) contained NPEs above the detection limit. The clothes sampled were purchased from shops in eighteen countries.
These results demonstrate both the use of these conventional chemicals in production and the consequent toxic discharges into waterways and rivers well beyond the country of manufacture. The problem and the solution are therefore not just local concerns. This is a truly global issue.
After china, India is the second largest producer of textile in the international market. After agriculture industry, textile industry is the biggest industry where India earns almost 27% of foreign exchange and 35 million of direct employment generates in textile industry.
India faces both the issue related to textile industry i.e. water and energy.
As a geographical point of view India comes on a tropical region of world, where water scarcity is the most important issue tackle by agriculture as well as by textile industry. Due to lack of innovative technology, Madras court give order to close 720 processing mills to shut down until the Zero discharge of textile effluent in environmental these decision made on the basis of used of hazardous conventional chemicals which affect local rivers and produce persistent effect on nature. The same situation arises in the western part of India i.e. Mumbai and Ahmedabad region to close the processing mill if are not complying environmental norm.
Indian textile industry is still facing a issues of energy scarcity where only certain region get surplus amount of energy to particular industrial area, but non-industrial area face a daily 8 to 12 hr power cut. At a same time 80% of energy is produce from the conventional coal technology where ultimately increase the carbon as well as CO2 footprint of fabric.
Pakistan is highly dependent on ground water resource for their daily used requirement. Ground water is contributing about one-third in total water resources of Pakistan and is a sole source of water supplies in major municipalities.
To save a Pakistan from the water and Energy scarcity, WWF Pakistan hosted Environmental Journalist Quarterly meeting on reducing water consumption in various industry including Textile processing industries in December 2015. The project is expected to result in water savings of 2.8 million cubic metre/annum and energy savings of 6MW/year.
Once Brazil has seas of water, but since last 4 years they are facing water as well as energy crises due to irregular nature of rainfall. Brazil water resource is 100% depend on the yearly rainfall.
Fabric processing industry highly developed in last decade by 680% export growth rate. To sustain in present world market need to adopt water saving technology.
According to Ministry of Energy and Mines of Brazil, A water crises of Brazil is also called as energy crises because 75% of total energy is produce from the hydroelectricity.
Turkey is one of the most water rich countries of the Mediterranean, but due to an enormous population increase from 28 million in 1960 to 75 million in 2010 the availability of water resources already decreased from 4000 m3 to 1500 me per capita/year today. Water demand gets increase by double rate in last 5 decade. 12% of water used for the industrial purpose.
Rivers are the main source of water in Turkey, almost 70% of total water access is provided by the rivers. Due to changes in climate, turkey facing water crises since last 5 years.
Turkey 70 % energy demands are produce from importing oil and Natural gases from Middle East. 10% of total share of energy is earned from Hydroelectricity and 20% of energy demand is fulfilling by conventional coal bases technology.
According to Eurostats 2011, Total effluent discharged from industrial waste water was 367.8 million m3; Out of that 103.2 million m3 were discharge without any treatment due to use of conventional chemicals during textile processing which ultimately increase the Overhead cost and increase the per kg price of fabric.
Bangladesh textile market is presently booming due to low labor cost and highly availability of natural resources at economical rates.
Due to 12 month availability of river water, fabric processing industry growth found at very high rate in last decade. Presently Bangladesh is facing tremendous issues of safe drinking water due to pollutions in river water. According to the WHO, the levels of arsenic (heavy metals) have contributed to the largest mass poisoning in history, affecting an estimated 30-35 million people in Bangladesh. Exposure to arsenic can cause cancer and severely damage many integral systems in the human body. Arsenic has been shown to be the cause of death for 1 out of every 5 people in Bangladesh. Arsenic level increases in the ground water due to discharging of conventional textile/denim processing effluent directly in the environment.
Indonesia’s lax pollution controls have allowed industries to discharge toxic waste into the Citarum river with near impunity which lead to make “rivers of water” into “rivers of chemicals”. Such situation arises by adopting conventional processing chemical and methodology which are affecting environment and aquatic life of the rivers in Indonesia. Two environmental NGOs, Green Cross Switzerland and the Blacksmith Institute, Citrum river one of the world’s top ten most polluted sites, next to Chernobyl in Ukraine and the Niger Delta in Nigeria.
In the earlier decade, Indonesia is facing critical energy crises due to increase in the industrialization and need to adopt energy and water saving technology in textile processing industry.